The Secretary of Education is the head of the U.S. Department of Education, formed in 1979. The Secretary advises the president on educational plans, policies, and initiatives and directs department officials to carry out those plans. The Secretary also serves as the head of the department's public relations and is responsible for promoting public understanding of the roles and policies of the department. In addition, the Secretary serves as the federal administrator for four federally funded educational institutions serving African-Americans, blind students, and deaf students. A recent program carried out by the department was the controversial 2002 No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to reduce the achievement gap among America's children and to increase accountability among its schools.