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Jackie Robinson was born on January 31, 1919 in Cairo, Georgia. Just a year after is birth, his mother moved him and his four siblings to Pasadena, California after Jackie's father deserted them. Jackie had a passion for sports at an early age and played football, baseball, basketball, and track for UCLA (The University of California at Los Angeles). He would become the first person in the history of UCLA to earn varsity letters in four different sports. He excelled in all four sports and led the Pacific Coast Conference (now the Pac-10) in scoring as a basketball player. Furthermore, he was a national champion long jumper.
In 1941, however, Jackie left college because of financial difficulties and joined the U.S. Army. Robinson became first lieutenant of the 761st Tank Battalion, a group of Black soldiers. By federal law, Black soldiers were not allowed to fight alongside White soldiers. Robinson, however, never accompanied the battalion in combat. He was court-martialed for refusing an order from a bus driver to move to the back of the bus. He was eventually acquitted of the charges.
A Negro League Star Becomes a Big-Leaguer
In 1944, Jackie joined the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro Baseball League. He was soon noticed by a baseball scout for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Although there was no law against signing Black baseball players in the Major Leagues, there was an "unwritten rule" against it. Attempts to sign players from the Negro Leagues had been rebuffed in the past. Nevertheless, the Dodgers owner, Branch Rickey, had begun a secret mission to sign the top players from the Negro Leagues. In 1946, Rickey signed Jackie Robinson to a Major League contract and designated him for assignment on the Dodgers minor league team in Montreal, Quebec (Canada). While Robinson was welcomed in Canada, the situation in the United States was less than cordial. On April 15, 1947, amidst incredible fanfare and controversy, Jackie Robinson was called up to the Major Leagues. He became the first Black player in 57 years to play in a Major League baseball game.
1952 Topps Jackie Robinson
Great Adversity and Great Success
During Robinson's first year he endured racism, taunting, and intolerance. Some of his teammates even threatened to stop playing rather than have Jackie as a teammate. Nevertheless, Branch Rickey and several of the Dodgers players supported Jackie. Despite the obstacles that stood in his way, Jackie proved his integrity and strength as a person. He went on to have a stellar baseball career. He led the Major Leagues in stolen bases in 1947 and became the Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year. In 1949, he was named the National League's Most Valuable Player (MVP). That year, he had 203 hits and belted 16 home runs. He also knocked in 124 runs and stole 37 bases. He batted .342. After five more stellar years, Jackie Robinson led the Brooklyn Dodgers to their only World Series victory in 1955. They won the championship in seven games over the rival New York Yankees (although when the Brooklyn Dodgers moved to Los Angeles they won several more titles). In 1956, Jackie Robinson chose to end his baseball career after eight seasons at the age of 37. He ended his career with a .311 lifetime average. Furthermore, Jackie Robinson stole home 19 times. To this day, no other player since the World War II era has stolen home as many times. He was an all-star 6 times in his short career.
In 1962, Jackie Robinson was inducted into the Major League Baseball Hall-of-Fame. He died on October 24, 1972. On the 50th anniversary of his Major League debut (April 15, 1947), Major League Baseball retired him number, 42. It will never be worn again by any major league player on any team. April 15th was also named Jackie Robinson Day. To this day, Jackie Robinson remains a hero. He was a pioneer in breaking "The Color Barrier" in professional sports and paved the way for thousands of African-American athletes in dozens of sports. On October 29, 2003, United States Congress honored him (after his death) with the Congressional Gold Medal - the highest honor Congress can give.
Jackie Robinson Reading Comprehension - Online - This resource includes a historical passage and ten multiple choice questions. It gives immediate feedback. In addition, when you click the "listen" button, you can hear the passage while it highlights the text.
Jackie Robinson Reading Comprehension - Correct-me Passage - This fun activity requires students to correct a passage about the life of Jackie Robinson that has eight factual errors. Students first must discover the errors, then click on them and select the correct answer from the drop down menu.
Jackie Robinson Fact-or-Fiction (Online) - This fun activity requires students to read a Hank Aaron passage and then, to sort 11 statements into those that are facts and those that are fiction. The program gives immediate feedback.
Jackie Robinson Fact-or-Fiction - This fun activity requires students to read a Jackie Robinson passage and then, to sort 11 statements into those that are facts and those that are fiction.
Jackie Robinson Baseball Card Math - Reading Line Graphs - Baseball Card Math is an activity in which students must make calculations and conclusions based on a player's statistics (listed on the back of a baseball card). This particular example reinforces drawing conclusions and reading statistics from line graphs.
Jackie Robinson Baseball Card Math - Word Problems - Baseball Card Math is an activity in which students must make calculations and conclusions based on a player's statistics (listed on the back of a baseball card). This particular example reinforces operations such as multi-digit addition and subtraction.