Known as Al-Qahirah in Arabic, the name Cairo is translated in English to "the Subduer." Modern Cairo sprung from the ruins of ancient Memphis, founded in 3100 BC by Menis of Tanis. The city of Cairo, however, was founded in 969 BC by Jawhar Al-Siqilli. Since 150 AD, Cairo has endured centuries of wars and invasions.
Today, it is the largest city in Africa and the cultural center of the Middle East and Arab World. It has the largest and oldest film studio in the Middle East and is home to the region's second oldest institute of higher learning (al-azhar University). Cairo has become a center of international tourism for its collections of ancient Egyptian artifacts, and of course, its nearby pyramids.