As the Napoleonic Wars ended in Europe, American officials knew that great numbers of British reinforcements would soon be arriving in North America. American forces, which were eager to secure Canada before their arrival, conitnued their advance into upper Canada by advancing down the Niagara River.
British General Phineas Reall planned to launch a surprise attack against the advancing Americans under the command of Winfield Scott and Jacob Brown. Reall believed the advancing soldiers were simply "militia" rather than the well-trained "regulars." By the time Reall realized his mistake it was tool late. The American "regulars" overwhelmed the British resistance by organizing into a "u-shaped" formation, enabling them to edeliver devastating volleys from multiple directions into the British advance. The British hastily retreated after suffering over 500 casualties.